Batik : Indonesian Art of Textile (PART II)

The Kind of Design
Althought Central Java is the centre of Javanese Batik, the design evolves according to the part of the region where it is manufactured. We are introducing the different kind of designs which are related to the usage in the day-to-day life as well as in the celebrations and finaly their characteristics by location as Yogyakarta, Surakarta or Solo, Pekalongan and Indramaju (or Indramayu).
There is two main kind of batik designs: 
# geometric
# non-geometric.
Classified under the geometric designs are :
* Diagonal or Parang motif *
* Squares, rectangles crosses or Ceplok *
* and Kawung Weaving or Limar motif *
Banji is probably the oldest type of motif used for batik. It is based on a cross with arms called swastika. It was originated from Yogyakarta and Surakarta (Solo). The use of Banji in South East Asia is coming back from the Hindu-Buddhist period. The word "Swastika" is coming from Sanskrit and means "well-being" and the word "banji" is of Chinese origin. The Kawung is an other oldest known batik patterns. It was in use in the royal courts of Java, It is built up from circular or elliptical shapes that touch or overlap.
Parang Designs : Ceplok and Kawung  

and the non-geometric:
* Semen *
* Lunglungan *
* Buketan *

Yogyakarta Design
Yogyakarta the capital city of the most powerful and respected Kingdom of Java, is also at the heart of the Batik art. All the old Traditions and customs are observed, as well as in Solo, and one can still find many symbols that are related to Hindu-Javanese culture.
The combination of motifs in Yogya batik is unique, and there is a tendency to combine a number of large geometric motifs.
Traditional motifs and colors used in the Yogyakarta design.
The Grompol motif is a distinctively Yogya design customarily used for wedding ceremonies. Grompol, which means "gather together" symbolizes the coming together of all goods things, such as luck, happiness, children, and harmonious married life. 
Grompol design from Yogyakarta
 The Nitik motif is found in great numbers in this area. During a colonial annual fair (Jaarbeurs) during the Dutch period, a batik producer gave the name Nitik Jaarbeurs to a motif which received an award.
Nitik Sekar Tenjung motif
Nitik Brendi motif
 Solo Design
Solo, the second sultanat.  
Solo ( now named Surakarta) was one of the two sultanates, with all the traditions and customs of their courts, and the center of Hindu-Javanese culture.
The Kraton (or court) was not only the residence of the kings, but also the center of government, religion and culture.this was reflected in the art of the region, especially in its batiks: in the motifs as well as in the colors, and its special rules governing the wearing of batik. In solo there were special rules about wearing batik. These had to do with- the social position of the wearer
- the occasion on which the batik was worn or used, in connection with the meaning and hope or wish symbolized by the motif.

The cloth on the left is a detail of a kain panjang which was made in the workshop of Hardjonagoro in Surakarta in the early 80's. The motif combine influences of several region, but the overall style and the color are typical of Solo design
The 'kain panjang' means 'long cloth'. It is a piece of cloth of approximately one by two and a half metre. It is used as the sarong, but the kain panjang is regarded as being more formal.

The motifs of the Solo design are related to the Hindu-Javanese culture: the Sawat symbol of the crown or highest power, the Meru symbol of mountain or earth, the Naga symbol of the water, the Burung symbol of the wind or upper world and the Lidah Api symbol of the fire.

In Solo there were special rules about wearing of batik. 1) the social position of the wearer, 2) the occasion on which the batik was worn or used. This was in connection with the meaning and hope or wish symbolized by the motif.
Batik Sawat or Lar
Batik Naga
Satrio Manah

to be continued...
next : Pekalongan Design
♥ ♥ ♥ ♥


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